Headwalls and endwalls support the system and protect the ends of the pipe. Properly constructed headwalls and endwalls improve pipe capacity and efficiency while reducing erosion around pipe installations.
Water is turbulent when it changes shape or direction, increasing its erosive potential. Water accelerates as it passes through a pipe creating the need for armor to prevent erosion. High flows erode unprotected areas directly causing soil erosion, sediment pollution, and maintenance costs. Physical support for the system may be necessary at pipe openings, depending on system width and pipe length